قواعد اللغة الانجليزية

“Word order in the simple statement”

تكوين الجملة الخبرية
Subject + verb + object + manner + place + time

S. + V. + O. + adv.m + adv.p + adv.t
• Shaimaa helps her mother actively in the kitchen every day.
• Every day Shaimaa helps her mother actively in the kitchen.
لاحظ أن adverb of time ممكن أن يأتي في أول الجملة أو آخرها .
Subject

noun pronoun the adj noun phrase
– The rich – playing
– To play
Verb

Auxiliary – helping model – defective ordinary

Object

noun pronoun adjective
Marwa her The rich

Adverb of Manner
• يتكون الحال بزيادة ( Ly ) في نهاية الصفة كالآتي :
quick quickly bad badly
active actively beautiful beautifully
• لاحظ أن هذه الكلمات تستخدم كصفة وكظرف في وقت واحد مثل :
hard – late – well – fast
أما هذه الكلمات فتستخدم كظرف فقط hardly – lately

Place
وهو يدل على أسماء الأماكن school – factory – club
Time
• ويستخدم فيه الكلمات الدالة على الوقت والزمان
today – every day – yesterday – now – tomorrow
Simple tenses
Tense The present simple The past simple The future simple
Formation
تكوينه First conjugation of the verb
– يتكون من التصريف الأول للفعل Second conjugation of the verb
يتكون من التصريف الثاني للفعل
* shall / will + inf. Am
*Is + going to + inf.
Are
Usage
استخدامه * للتعبير عن عادة أو هيئة أو وصف دائم * للتعبير عن حدث وقع وانتهى في الماضي * للتعبير عن حدث سوف يقع في المستقبل
Time line × × × × × × ×
×
×
Indicators
Guided words Usually – sometimes- always- after- every ..- rarely-generally- occasionally Last… – once –
one day – yesterday – ago – early…-
in the past –
in ancient times Soon – tomorrow – in the future- tonight – next… – in a few minutes – in the evening
Examples
أمثلة -He usually goes to school early.
-The earth moves round the sun -I was born in 1968.
-They played football yesterday.
-Early man lived in caves. -He will travel abroad tomorrow.
-The runners are going to start soon
Notes * تضاف ( S ) إلى نهاية الفعل إذا كان الفاعل مفرد غائب أو ( es ) في نفس الحالة إذا انتهى الفعل ب( ss-ch-sh-o-x)
-He plays well
-She catches the bus …
تحذف ( y ) وتحول إلى(ies ) إذا سبقها حرف ساكن studies * يستخدم الماضي البسيط بعد wish – suppose
I wish I had a car
Suppose I asked you for 100 pounds.
يستخدم بعد
as if – if only • تستخدم هذه الأفعال للدلالة على المستقبل
promise – expect- hope- want-intend-like
من الممكن استخدام المضارع البسيط والمضارع المستمر للتعبير عن المستقبل

Continuous tenses
Present continuous Past continuous Future continuous
Formation Am
Is + V.+ing
are Was
+ V. + ing
Were Shall
+ be+v. +ing
well
Usage
استخدامه • يعبر عن حدث يقع الآن
• يعبر عن حدث مستقبلي مخطط له * يعبر عن حدث كان مستمرا في الماضي عندما قطعه حدث آخر
* يعبر عن حدثين كانا مستمران في الماضي • يعبر عن حدث سيكون مستمرا في المستقبل
• يعبر عن حدث سوف يستمر في المستقبل
Time line
Indicators
Guided words Now- look – listen- still – at present – at this moment – hurry up While – as – when All time tomorrow- this time tomorrow- at…O’clock tomorrow- next
Examples • She is still making the beds
• It is raining now
• Look, the car is running madly • While I was walking in the street, I fell down
• The husband was reading while the wife was cooking • When you next see me I’ll be wearing my suit
• I shall be coming to your house tomorrow
ملحوظة : لاحظ أن أفعال الحواس والشعور والإدراك والملكية وبعض الأفعال التي لا تأتي في صيغة الاستمرار
أفعال الشعور see, hear, smell, notice, feel
أفعال التفكير realize, know, understand, mean, suppose, believe, remember, remember, recollect, trust, mind
أفعال العاطفةwant, desire, refuse, forgive, wish, care, hate, love, like, dislike
أفعال الملكية own, owe, belong ,possess

Perfect tenses

Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect
Formation Have/has + p.p Had + p.p Shall
+ have + p.p
Will
Usage * للتعبير عن حدث وقع في الماضي ولا زال له علاقة بالحاضر أو حدث انتهى توا * للتعبير عن حدث تام وقع في الماضي قبل وقوع حدث آخر ( ماضي بسيط ) للتعبير عن حدث سوف يتم اكتمال وقوعه في المستقبل قبل أن تتم فترة زمنية معينة
Time line
Indicators
Guided words Just- already- ever- never- since- for- yet- so far- lately -recently After- before- as soon as – no sooner……….than-
hardly………….when
scarcely………..when By
In + future
This time
• I haven’t seen him since he traveled abroad.
• We have lived here for ten years.
• She hasn’t come yet. • After he had left his office he returned home
• Before she watched T.V she had finished homework
• No sooner had he found his keys than he lost them again • They will have finished the school in a year
• By next October I will have joined the university
• By next year we shall have built a new house

Perfect continuous tenses

Present Perfect continuous Past Perfect continuous Future Perfect continuous
Formation Have
+ been + v. + ing
Has Had + been + v. + ing Shall
+ have + been + v. + ing
will
Usage للتعبير عن حدث بدأ في الماضي ومازال مستمرا حتى الآن أو انتهى تواً أو يمكن استمراره في المستقبل للتعبير عن الأحداث المستمرة أو المتكررة قبل حدث ماضي انتهى فعلا للتعبير عن حدث مستمر للآن أو سوف يبدأ في الاستمرار بعد قليل وسوف يستمر في المستقبل
Time line
Indicators Since / for + now
So far / till now
All this morning… After – before By / in this time + future
Examples • I have been waiting for you all morning
• He has been reading all afternoon
• It has been raining for two hours and it still hasn’t stopped • I had been working in a shop for years before I got this job
• The boy was delighted with his toy. He had been wanting it for a long time • By the end of the week they will have been living here
• In this time next month we shall have been working in a new school

ملحوظة :
• لا يستخدم المضارع التام المستمر في المبني للمجهول ويستخدم المضارع التام بدلا منه
* She has been cooking Mahshi. – Mahshi has been *****d
• لا يستخدم الماضي التام المستمر في المبني للمجهول ويستخدم الماضي التام بدلا منه
He had been waiting for it a long time – It had been waited for ..

Conjugation of common Irregular verbs
تصريفات الأفعال الشاذة الشائعة
Present Meaning Past Past Participle
awoke يستيقظ awoke Awoke
bear يلد bore Born
bear يحمل bore Born
beat يضرب – يهزم- يدق beat Beaten
become يصبح became Become
Begin يبدأ Began Begun
Bend يثني – ينثني Bent Bent
Bid يأمر Bade Bidden
Bind يربط Bound Bound
Bite يعض- يقضم Bit Bitten
Bleed ينزف Bled Bled
Blow يهب- يعصف Blew Blown
Break يكسر – يتكسر Broke Broken
Breed يربي Bred Bred
Bring يحضر Brought Brought
Broadcast يذيع Broadcast Broadcast
Build يبني Built Built
Burn يحرق- يحترق Burnt Burnt
Burst ينفجر- يندفع Burst Burst
Buy يشتري Bought Bought
Catch يمسك Caught Caught
Cast يلقي Cast Cast
Choose يختار Chose Chosen
Cling يتعلق بـ Clung Clung
Come يأتي Came Come
Cost يكلف – يساوي Cost Cost
Creep يزحف Crept Crept
Cut يقطع Cut Cut
Deal يتعامل Dealt Dealt
Dig يحفر Dug Dug
Do يفعل Did Done
Draw يرسم- يجر Drew Drawn
Drink يشرب Drank Drunk
Drive يقود- يدفع Drove Driven
Dwell يقطن Dwelt Dwelt
Eat يأكل Ate Eaten
Fall يسقط – يقع Fell Fallen
Feed يطعم- يغذي fed Fed
Feel يشعر Felt Felt
Fight يحارب fought Fought
Find يجد found Found
Flee يهرب fled Fled
Fly يطير flew Flown
Forget ينسى forgot Forgotten
Forgive يعفو عن forgave Forgiven
Freeze يتجمد froze Frozen
Get يحصل على got Got
Give يعطي gave Given
Go يذهب went Gone
Grind يطحن ground Ground
Grow ينمو-يزرع-يصبح grew Grown
Hang يشنق hanged Hanged
Hang يعلق hung Hung
Hear يسمع heard Heard
Hide يخفي- يختبئ hid Hidden
Hit يضرب hit Hit
Hold يمسك held Held
Hurt يؤذي- يضر hurt Hurt
Keep يحفظ- يحتفظ بـ kept Kept
Kneel يركع knelt Knelt
Know يعرف knew Known
Lay يضع laid Laid
Lean يسند leant Leant
Lie يرقد lay Lain
Lie يكذب lied Lied
Lead يقود led Led
Leap يقفز Leapt Leapt
Learn يتعلم Learnt Learnt
Leave يترك Left Left
Lend يقرض Lent Lent
Let يدع Let Let
Lose يفقد Lost Lost
Make يصنع- يجعل Made Made
Mean يعني Meant Meant
Meet يقابل Met Met
Pay يدفع Paid Paid
Put يضع Put Put
Read يقرأ Read Read
Ride يركب rode Ridden
Ring يدق rang Rung
Rise ينهض- يشرق rose Risen
Run يجري ran Run
saw يقطع بمنشار sawed Sawn
Say يقول said Said
See يرى Saw Seen
Seek يبحث عن Sought Sought
Sell يبيع Sold Sold
Send يرسل Sent Sent
Set يغرب- يضع Set Set
Sew يخيط – يحيك Sewed Sewn
Shake يهز Shook Shaken
Shine يلمع Shone Shone
Shoot يطلق Shot Shot
Show يرى Showed Shown
Shrink ينكمش Shrank Shrunk
Shut يقفل Shut Shut
Sing يغني Sang Sung
Sink يغرق Sank Sunk
Sit يجلس Sat Sat
Slay يذبح Slew Slain
Sleep ينام Slept Slept
Smell يشم-يعطي رائحة Smelt Smelt
Sow يبذر Sowed Sown
Speak يتكلم Spoke Spoken
Spend يقضي- يصرف Spent Spent
Spell يتهجى Spelt Spelt
Spill يسكب- ينسكب Spilt Spilt
Spin يغزل – يدور Span Spun
Spit يبصق Spat Spat
Split يشطر Split Split
Spoil يفسد Spoilt Spoilt
Spread ينشر – ينتشر Spread Spread
Spring يقفز Sprang Sprung
Stand يقف Stood Stood
Steal يسرق Stole Stolen
Stick يلتصق ب Stuck Stuck
Sting يلدغ Stung Stung
Strike يضرب Struck Struck
Swear يقسم Swore Sworn
Sweat يعرق Sweat Sweat
Sweep يكنس Swept Swept
Swell يتورم Swelled Swollen
Swim يسبح Swam Swum
Swing يتأرجح Swung Swung
Take يأخذ Took Taken
Teach يعلم Taught Taught
Tear يمزق Tore Torn
Tell يخبر Told Told
Think يفكر – يعتقد Thought Thought
Throw يلقي Threw Thrown
Thrust يلقي – يدس Thrust Thrust
Tread يدوس Trod Trodden
Understand يفهم Understood Understood
Wear يرتدي Wore Worn
Weave ينسخ Wove Woven
Weep يبكي Wept Wept
Win يكسب Won Won
Wind يلف Wound Wound
write يكتب wrote Written

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