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Istanbul (pronounced [ʔist ˤ ɑmbu ː l], Turkic-modern: İstanbul; and Turkish Ottoman: Istanbul [istambul]), and historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople and Astana and Aslambol; [2] is the largest city in Turkey and fifth largest city in the world in terms of population, where the population of 12.8 million. [3] Istanbul is also “a big city”, and is seen as the center of Turkey’s cultural, economic and financial. The city covers an area of ​​39 constitute the province of Istanbul province. [4] Istanbul is located on the Bosphorus Strait and encircle the natural harbor known as the “Golden Horn” (in Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz) the fact, in the northwest of the country. Extends the city along the European side of the Bosphorus Strait, known as “Thrace”, and the Asian side or “Anatolia” and, therefore, the only city in the world located on two continents.
This city was the capital of a number of states and empires throughout its long history, was the capital of the Roman Empire (330-395), the Byzantine Empire (since 395 until the year 1204 and then from year 1261 until the year 1453), the Latin Empire (1204-1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453-1922). [5] In most of these stages, surrounded the city an aura of holiness, as it was important religious significance when the population and the population of the neighboring countries, was an important city for Christians after he converted to the Byzantine Empire, the Christian religion, before it turns to become the capital of the caliphate Islamic year 1517 until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1924. [6]
Istanbul was chosen as the capital of a common European culture for the year 2010, and the historical landmarks have been added prior to that, in 1985, to the list of World Heritage Sites of UNESCO. [7]

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